Journal Articles


Elevation range of Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (Cactaceae) is at least 160-1900 m. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 49(2): 109-115. [Gorelick R & Boone J]

Glandulicactus uncinatus var. wrightii (Cactaceae) with 15 cm spines. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 15(2): 569-573.


The Coryphantha sneedii complex is indeed complex and continuously intergrades with Coryphantha vivipara. Haseltonia 27: 40-59.

Ultra-thin hairy new shoots on belowground cuttings of recently rooted Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (Cactaceae). Haseltonia 27: 113-115.

Chromosome architecture drives cycad evolution. Cycads 5(1): 23-32.

Range of Cylindropuntia whipplei (Cactaceae) in New Mexico. Phytoneuron 2020(47): 1-10.


Espostoa (Vatricania) guentheri have unusual cephalia or pseudocephalia. Haseltonia 26: 58-67.


Meiosis decreases recombination load; Mitosis increases recombination load. [Root Gorelick and Francis X. Villablanca] Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 11: 19-28.

Cluster-based modeling of hexokinase network in long distance sugar signaling in temperate broadleaf eudicot trees [Ross Young, Root Gorelick, and Tim Xing] Tree Genetics & Genomes 14: 56 [].

Historical note on rooting succulent leaf cuttings. Haseltonia 24: 63.


Organ pipe cactus, Stenocereus thurberi, with fleshy leaves on spherical short-shoots that have indeterminate growth. Haseltonia 23: 117-124.

No universal differences between females and males: anisogamy and asymmetrical female meiosis. [Root Gorelick, Jessica Carpinone, and Lindsay Jackson Derraugh] Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 120(1): 1-21.

Prediction of Arctic plant phenological sensitivity to climate change from historical records. [Zoe A. Panchen and Root Gorelick] Ecology and Evolution 7(5): 1325-1338.


Subdermal woody thorns with secondary growth may support shoots of senita, Lophocereus schottii (Cactaceae). Haseltonia 22: 18-21. [plus front cover photo]

Flowering time across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago may be driven more by microclimate than latitude and elevation. [Zoe A. Panchen and Root Gorelick] International Journal of Plant Sciences 177(8): 661-670.

What is a cephalium? Bradleya 34: 100-124.

Abrupt shortening of bird W chromosomes in ancestral Neognathae. [Root Gorelick, Danielle L. Fraser, Melissa Mansfield, Jeff W. Dawson, Sanoji Wijeneyake, and Susan M. Bertram] Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 119(2): 488-496.


Flowering and fruiting responses to climate change of two Arctic plant species, purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) and mountain avens (Dryas integrifolia). [Zoe Panchen and Root Gorelick] Arctic Science 1(2): 45-58.

New combinations in Coryphantha and Escobaria (Cactaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 9(1-2): 25-30, 351-352.

Wherefore stoch-aptation? Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 8: 46-49.

Northern range limit of Opuntia fragilis and the Cactaceae is 56°N, not 58°N. Madroño 62(2): 115-123.

Why vegetative propagation of leaf cuttings is possible in succulent and semi-succulent plants. Haseltonia 20: 51-57.

Extinction and climate change influence phylogenetic community assembly of North American hoofed mammals. [Danielle L. Fraser, Root Gorelick, Natalia Rybczynski] Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 114(3): 585-594.

Freeze-tolerance of cacti (Cactaceae) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. [Root Gorelick, Taly Drezner, Ken Hancock] Madroño 62(1): 32-44.


Cycad (Cycadales) chromosome numbers are not correlated with genome size. [Root Gorelick, Danielle L. Fraser, Ben J.M. Zonneveld, Damon P. Little] International Journal of Plant Sciences 175(9): 986-997.

Defining clonality and individuals in plant evolution. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 7: 84-88.

Mean annual precipitation explains spatiotemporal patterns of Cenozoic mammal beta diversity and latitudinal diversity gradients in North America. [Danielle L. Fraser, Christopher Hassall, Root Gorelick, Natalia Rybczynski]. PLoS One 9(9): e0106499. [click here for supporting files (44 pages)]

Do Micrognathozoa have micro genomes? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 112(3): 640-644.

Indigenous sciences are not pseudosciences. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 7: 43-55. [Reprinted in Indigenizing the university: diverse perspectives. Editor: Frances Widdowson. Pages 175-198. Calgary: Theodosian Press (2021).]

Morphology and development of sunken terminal cephalium in Discocactus (Cactaceae). Madroño 61(2): 194-200.

Kin recognition by roots occurs in cycads and probably in conifers. [Root Gorelick and Thomas E. Marler] Communicative & Integrative Biology 7(1): e28009.

Fishing for philosophical phylogenetic foibles. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 7: 8-10.

Axillary branching of lateral cephalia in Cactaceae is not constrained by tilting of shoot apices. Haseltonia 19: 13-16.


Single cell heterogeneity: Why unstable genomes are incompatible with average profiles. [Batoul Y. Abdallah, Steven D. Horne, Joshua B. Stevens, Guo Liu, Andrew Y. Ying, Barbara Vanderhyden, Stephan A. Krawetz, Root Gorelick, and Henry H.Q. Heng] Cell Cycle 12(23): 3640-3649.

Coleocephalocereus purpureus has a cephalium; Micranthocereus streckeri has a pseudocephalium (Cereeae, Cactoideae, Cactaceae). Bradleya 31: 142-149. [Erratum (2014) Bradleya 32: 180.]

Polyploidy is genetic hence may cause non-adaptive radiations, whereas pseudopolyploidy is genomic hence may cause adaptive non-radiations. [Root Gorelick and Krystle Olson]. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Part B. Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 320B(5): 286-294.

Measures of diversity should include both matrix and vector inputs. Ecological Economics 86: 211-212.


Mitosis circumscribes individuals; sex creates new individuals. Biology & Philosophy 27(6): 871-890.

Meiosis is not gender neutral. BioScience 62(7): 623-624.

Theory may not be definable and its development is not efficient. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 5: 25-26.

Evolutionary developmental biology in cycad phenology. [Root Gorelick and Thomas Marler]. Communicative & Integrative Biology 5(3): 272-274.

Axillary branching of lateral cephalia of Coleocephalocereus (Cactaceae). [Root Gorelick and Marlon Machado]. Haseltonia 17: 35-41.

A good start in life: access to preferred temperatures during gravidity improves offspring quality in the Children’s python (Antaresia childreni). [Sophie Lorioux, Dale DeNardo, Root Gorelick, and Olivier Lourdais]. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(8): 1346-1353.

Phenotypic covariance structure and its divergence for acoustic mate signals among four cricket species. [Susan Bertram, Lauren Fitzsimmons, Emily McAuley, Howard Rundle, Root Gorelick]. Ecology and Evolution 2(1): 181-195.


Creativity: standing on the shoulders of Hobbes’ Leviathan. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 4: 40-42.

Do we have a consistent terminology for species diversity? The fallacy of true diversity. Oecologia 67(4): 885-888.

Post-plasmogamic pre-karyogamic sexual selection: Mate choice inside an egg cell. [Root Gorelick, Lindsay Jackson Derraugh, Jessica Carpinone, and Susan Bertram]. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 4: 14-23.

Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review. [Root Gorelick and Henry Heng] Evolution 65(4): 1088-1098.

What is theory? Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 4: 1-10.

Is lack of cycad (Cycadales) diversity due to lack of polyploidy? [Root Gorelick and Krystle Olson]. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 165(2): 156-167.

Chromosomal fission accounts for small-scale radiations in Zamia (Zamiaceae) [Krystle Olson and Root Gorelick]. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 165(2): 168-185.


Multi-way multi-group segregation and diversity indices [Root Gorelick and Susan Bertram] PLoS One 5(6): e19102.

Questioning heteronormative theories of mate choice. Biological Theory 5(4): 397.


Origin and maintenance of sex: the evolutionary joys of self sex [Root Gorelick and Jessica Carpinone]. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98(4): 707-728.

Swimming eastern chipmunks, Tamias striatus, and hairy-tailed mole, Parascalops breweri, in Kawartha Highlands Provincial Park, Ontario [Root Gorelick and Susan Bertram]. Canadian Field-Naturalist 122(1): 73-75.

Evolution of cacti is largely driven by genetic drift, not selection. Bradleya 27: 37-48.

Quantifying and maintaining mating systems using normalized mutual entropy [Susan Bertram and Root Gorelick]. Animal Behaviour 77(1): 201-206.


Genetic = Heritable (Genetic ≠ DNA) [Root Gorelick and Manfred Laubichler]. Biological Theory. 3(1): 79-84.

Early cactus evolution. Haseltonia 14: 3-5.

Species richness and the analytical geometry of latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Acta Biotheoretica 56(3): 197-203.

Proposal to require prior deposition of types [Roy Mottram and Root Gorelick]. Taxon 57(1): 314.


Evolution of dioecy and sex chromosomes in cycads [Root Gorelick and Roy Osborne]. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 97: 326-334.

Sex change in cycads: cases, causes, and chemistry [Roy Osborne and Root Gorelick]. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 97: 335-345.

When information theory is no longer theory. Biological Theory 2(2): 180-182.

Emergence of increased division of labor as a function of group size. [Raphael Jeanson, Jennifer Fewell, Root Gorelick, and Susan Bertram]. Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology 62(2): 289-298.

Heritability of acoustic signaling time in the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis. [Susan Bertram, Darrell Kemp, Jennifer Johnson, S. Xochitl Orozco, and Root Gorelick]. Evolutionary Ecology Research 9(6): 975-986.

Quantifying division of labor: Borrowing tools from sociobiology, sociology, information theory, landscape ecology, and biogeography [Root Gorelick and Susan Bertram]. Insectes Sociaux 54(2): 105-112.


Evolutionary flatland. Biological Theory 1(2): 203-205.

Combining species richness and abundance in a single diversity index using matrix analogues of Shannon’s and Simpson’s indices. Ecography 29(4): 525-530.


Theory for why dioecious plants have equal length sex chromosomes. American Journal of Botany 92(6): 979-984.

Environmentally-alterable additive genetic effects. Evolutionary Ecology Research 7(3): 371-379.

Distribution of Ferocactus emoryi (Cactaceae) in Arizona [Root Gorelick and Shannon Doan]. Bradleya 23: 31-40.


Normalized mutual entropy in biology: quantifying division of labor [Root Gorelick, Susan Bertram, Peter Killeen, and Jennifer Fewell]. American Naturalist 164(5): 677-682.

Decomposing multi-locus linkage disequilibrium [Root Gorelick and Manfred Laubichler]. Genetics 166(3): 1581-1583.

Resolving the phylogenetic placement of Blossfeldia liliputana (Cactaceae): reticulate evolution, chloroplast inheritance, and graft-chimeras. Bradleya 22: 9-14.

Neo-Lamarckian medicine. Medical Hypotheses 62(2): 299-303.


Evolution of dioecy and sex chromosomes via methylation driving Muller’s ratchet. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 80(2): 353-368.

Transposable elements suppress recombination in all meiotic eukaryotes, including automictic ancient asexuals. Journal of Natural History 37(8): 903-909.

Colony response to graded resource changes: an analytical model of the influence of genotype, environment, and inheritance pattern [Susan Bertram, Root Gorelick, and Jennifer Fewell]. Theoretical Population Biology 64(2): 151-162.

Maintaining heritable variation via sex-limited temporally fluctuating selection: a phenotypic model accommodating non-Mendelian epigenetic effects [Root Gorelick and Susan Bertram]. Theory in Biosciences 122(4): 321-338.


DNA sequences and cactus classification. Bradleya 20: 1-4.

Inducing sex change and organogenesis from tissue culture in the endangered African cycad Encephalartos woodii (Cycadales, Zamiaceae) [Root Gorelick and Roy Osborne]. South African Journal of Science 98(3-4): 114-117.


Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74(4): 407-427.